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Pronunciation can mean the production of the correct sound, and/or the ability to discriminate between sounds. Included in pronunciation is the ability to hear and produce a native-like intonation pattern. Each polysyllabic word contains a stressed syllable; each clause contains a shift in intonation.    
click here for minimal pairs

Reading aloud 


The technique of reading aloud can provide the teacher with an accurate indication of the student's abilities to decode and interpret phonemes and graphemes.    


     Reading aloud

The teacher and student both have a copy of the prepared text.  As the student reads the text, the  teacher circles each error in pronunciation and intonation.  

Patterns in errors are noted by the teacher and  incorporated into future lessons.  

Oral Repetition

Oral repetition tests require the student to repeat a list of discrete sounds that has been prepared by the teacher. Oral repetition tests indicate the student's ability to produce specific sounds and intonation patterns correctly.  



The teacher prepares a list of words with specific phonemes in initial,  medial, and final position. Both the teacher and student have a copy of the list.  As the student reads each word, errors are circled.  

Patterns in errors are noted by the teacher and incorporated into future lessons.

Discerning Phonemes 


Minimal pairs can be used to test the ability to discriminate between phonemes. 


Click here for minimal pairs   


From the discrete phonemes to be tested, the teacher prepares a list of minimal pairs. As one word is read from each pair by the teacher, it is circled by the student. 

For pre-literate students, pictures can be prepared that require the student to circle the correct picture, e.g., cat and cap.